Mango Tree Growth Stages


Understanding the life cycle of a mango tree will help you be a better gardener. What are its growth stages?
By     

Mango trees grown from seeds will bear fruit in about 8 years. These trees are popular among gardeners because they require little care and can provide beautiful foliage all year. They are valued not only for their fruits but also their hardiness and ability to grow in various environments.

The evergreen mango tree is well-known for its delicious, juicy fruit, which can be consumed raw or cooked. Mango trees can survive past 100 years old and will continue to bear fruit even in their old age. 

Let’s look at the various stages of a mango tree’s life, from germination to maturity.

Germination

Mango seeds are classified as monoembryonic or polyembryonic. Monoembryonic seeds grow only one plant, which will bear no resemblance to the parent tree. Polyembryonic seeds have several embryos, all of which will grow to be exact clones of the parent, except one. This exception is usually the first to sprout.

Mango seeds germinate in two to four weeks. During the sprout’s growing period, the epicotyl will continue to grow upright while the cotyledons remain under the soil.

After 4 to 6 weeks, you should have a 4 to 8-inch tall seedling. The young plant is still fragile and will continue producing new woody tissue and leaves. The seedling stage lasts around two years.

mango seeds ready for germination

Vegetative

The juvenile stage of seedling trees can last anywhere from two to seven years under subtropical conditions. During the vegetative period, the tree begins to grow rapidly. 

The plant develops its structure and general shape between the second and fifth years. The growth progression can be seen in the stems; older stems have several bare spots, indicating growth. 

Mature mango leaves are dark, glossy green, long, and pointed. The leathery leaves can grow 5 to 16 inches and last at least a year. New vegetative growth will begin when the old-growth has hardened to a deep green color.

A mango tree can reach a height of 100 feet and a canopy of 35 feet in a short time. It will continue to grow to its full size.

young mango tree grown in the yard

Reproductive

Depending on the variety, the mango tree typically blooms when it is 7 to 10 years old. Even larger mango trees can become enveloped by the large fragrant blossoms during the flowering season. 

Most mangoes produce a majority of hermaphroditic flowers that bloom for 2 to 3 weeks. These flowers are usually open at night and early morning. The fragrant flowers are pollinated via wind and insects, but less than 1% of the flowers will turn to fruits. 

blossoming mango tree in the farm

Fruiting

Following flowering, fruit development takes place over 100 to 150 days. The fruit ripens three to five months after blooming. 

Cell division, cell expansion, and ripening are the three stages of fruit development. The first stage takes a lot of energy due to the rapid cell division rate. As the cells absorb more water during cell expansion, the fruit also grows in size. 

The ripening or the final stage of development occurs when the fruit is mature enough to be removed from the mother plant. 

The texture, flavor, and color of the fruit are changing internally and externally. Mangoes are ready to pick when their skin color changes from green to yellow, orange, or red. When the fruits are fully ripe, blushing with color, and semi-soft, they can be harvested.

Mature trees will yield more and more fruit over time but bloom only every other year. A tree can produce 200 to 300 fruits per season between the ages of 10 and 20. The crops also increase in quantity as the tree ages.

ripe mangoes ready for harvest
Alaine Connolly
Alaine has been working way too hard in horticulture since 1992, beautifying golf courses, resorts, and hotels. She is a part time landscape designer who works full time caring for a 28,000 square foot public garden. At home, she maintains her own 400 square feet plot. Alaine lives in northern Illinois - zone 5b.
More ArticlesTrees and Bushes